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FERNANDO DE NORONHA

The Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha is formed by twenty-one islands, in an extension of 26 km², with the main one - the biggest of all also called "Fernando de Noronha" - as the only inhabited island. The others are contained in the National Marine Park area and are uninhabited, and can only be visited with an official license from IBAMA.

ABOUT NORONHA

Scheduling a trip to Fernando de Noronha can mean the realization of a dream of most Brazilians. In the Archipelago, one has the feeling of being in a part of Brazil that has worked, it is 17 square kilometers to 545 km off the coast of Pernambuco, where only 3,500 inhabitants live and tourism is developed in a sustainable way, creating the opportunity for balanced encounter between man and nature in one of the most important ecological sanctuaries in the world.

Coming to Noronha requires at least 5 days to enjoy the countless natural attractions and experience a little of the history of our colonization. There are countless options for activities and tours, which cater to all audiences and offer visitors the chance to see all the natural beauty of the islands.

1. Fernando de Noronha Island

The main island, has 17 km², with about 10 km in length and 3.5 km in maximum width. Its perimeter is approximately 60 km. It is rugged, with several elevations, including the Morro do Pico, 323 m high; the Morro do Espinhaço, with 223 m; the French Hill, with 195 m; the Alto da Bandeira, with 160 m; the Morro do Curral, with 126 m; and the Morro de Sto. Antônio, with 105 m.

On this island are the historical sites (Vila dos Remédios, Vila da Quixaba, ruins of the Forts of São Pedro do Boldró, Sto. Antonio, NSª da Conceição and Parque de Sant'Ana), the residential villages of civilians, the village of Air Force Flight Protection Department, Airport, Daycare, School, Hospital, Tubarão Electric Power Plant, Piraúna Water Treatment Plant, Desalination Plant, Waste Treatment Plant and Telephone Services .

Part of this island has been a National Marine Park since 1988, with a spatial division identified as the Environmental Protection Area - APA, with approximately 08 km², and the PARNAMAR / FN Area, with 112.7 km², including the maritime part here, until where the sea is 50 m deep (isobata). Around this larger island, other small islands, rocks and islets make up the scene decanted by scholars and troubadours. They are the SECONDARY ISLANDS, knowing today that all these islands were linked, forming a single block, separated over millions of years due to marine erosion. Click on the links below to discover each of these islands.

2. Rata Island

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The name is controversial. It would be the "Rapta" of the ancient books, the "Island of the Rats" mentioned by Fr. André Thevet (in 1556). It is second in size, with 6.8 km², dark rocks and steep walls. It was inhabited by lighthouse keepers and their families, at the time when its orientation lighthouse needed human maintenance. The death of children due to the delay in the arrival of water on Ilha Rata, due to access difficulties, motivated the installation of the automatic light. It was also the basis of the commercial experiment of the "Companhia de Guano", which explored the abundant "guano" (calcium phosphate) on its entire surface, resulting from the accumulation of solidified seabird droppings, considered "the largest deposit of zoogenic phosphates in the world Brazil". The Pontal da Macaxeira and the Ilha do Lucena stand out in it, which at high tide is already configured as another island. Iron stairs embedded in the rock allow scholarly access and Navy control.

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3. Middle Island

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It is located between Rata Island and Sela Gineta rock. Its base is narrower than its top and the breaking waves on its cliffs form cavities, which are very appreciated when it is coasted along the maritime promenades.

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4. Shallow Island

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Located near the Sela Gineta cliff and beside the tip of Air France, on the main island, it is sandstone, with a smooth top. It is the lowest in height of all the secondary islands, having its top with eroded soil and full of sharp spaces. Everything indicates that this island was once associated with the body of the main island, in a period of sea below the current one.

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5. Sao Jose Island

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It is composed of dark basaltic rocks and is connected to the beach, in the Air France region, on the main island, by a tomb of black pebbles, similar to a reef, one of the proofs of the union between the islands in the past), which allows access walk at low tides. At the top was built, in the 18th century, the Fort of São Jose do Morro, the only one of the defensive system then deployed in the archipelago, outside the main island, with the function of defending the Bay of Sto. Antonio, who is in front of you.

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6. Island of Couscous

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Phonolitic rock located near the São José hill, has its name from the similarity of the "nordestino couscous", food made from corn.

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7. Lucena Island

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Ponta da Ilha Rata that has been separating due to the action of the sea. At low tide, you can still see the connection with this island.

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8. Ilha do Chapéu do Nordeste

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Small formation next to the access rocks to Morro de São José.

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9. Hairy Island

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Similar to the Sela Gineta Rock, it is also a phonolitic rock and is located at the mouth of the Sueste Bay, in the outer sea.

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10. Ilha do Chapéu do Sueste

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It resembles the Middle and Rasa Islands in its formation, and appears as a small mushroom. Its top is enlarged and the base near the height of the waves is narrower, forming a plateau below, where aratus and crabs can be appreciated.

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11. Island of Eggs

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Located in front of Enseada do Abreu, between Baía Sueste and Praia de Atalaia, it is also phonolitic.

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12. Trinta-Réis Island

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Small whitish phonolitic high due to the presence of guano in abundance, located near the "Chapéu do Sueste" in the sea.

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13. Ilhota da Conceição or Morro de Fora

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14. Saddle Rider Rock

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15. Two Brothers Rock

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Two islands very similar to each other, formed by dark colored volcanic rocks, on which there are deposits of "guano", which adds to them a whitish air of rare beauty. It is the most significant volcanic outcrop in the archipelago, having inspired one of the famous legends of Fernando de Noronha: the LEGEND OF SIN, which considers it "the breasts of a gigantic woman, petrified by the punishment of having sinned".

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16. Frade Island Rock

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Outcrop of phonolitic rock, in it one can observe fractures in its composition. It resembles a seated friar, wearing a hood, as if in a position of prayer. It was once called "Ilha dos Sinos", due to the noise of the sea hitting the rocks.

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17. Rock near Ilha dos Ovos, in the sea outside

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18. Rock located near Ponta das Caracas and Baía do Sueste

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19. Rock of Morro do Leão

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Phonolitic rock similar to the Sela Gineta rock, is located in the sea, near Praia do Leão, resembling a lying sea lion, hence its name.

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20. Rock of Morro da Viuvinha

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It is also a phonolitic rock, located next to the Leão Rock, on the same beach, in the sea-de-fora. It is a nesting place for birds, that is, an area where it is common for birds to make their nests.

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21. Dry Stone Rock

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Three small phonolitic formations, located in the sea-de-fora, far from the whole of the archipelago, in the direction of Atalaia beach and Enseada da Caeira. Called "choices" by Américo Vespucci, in 1503, in his descriptive letter of the approach taken in the face of the shipwreck that occurred in that proximity, it is the place where Fernando de Noronha's official story begins.

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